Carbon & Environment

Carbon & Environment

A natural part of our environment, sustainably sourced wood is our only practical, renewable building material that also provides wide-ranging benefits – from habitat, employment and recreational activities to carbon sequestration.

Tackling climate change with wood

Choosing forest and wood products can effectively reduce the process of climate change in several ways.

Growing trees absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and store the carbon so efficiently that about half the dry weight of wood is carbon. This carbon remains locked up for the life of the wood even when we use it for building products or furniture. It is only released when the wood is burnt or rots – and wood stored in landfill under anaerobic (lack of oxygen) conditions can last for hundreds if not thousands of years.

Using wood instead of other materials has other advantages too. The production of wood products uses less energy (usually sourced from finite fossil fuels) compared with other building materials that can be used in its place.

This area can be quite complex and ultimately depends on comparing life cycle analyses of he environmental affects of different materials. If you would like more information about this topic, please visit and do a search for LCA or ‘life cycle analysis’.

As a fuel, sustainably grown and harvested wood (and other biomass) provides a renewable alternative to fossil fuels.

Wood and the greenhouse effect

The term “greenhouse effect” refers to the way trapped infrared radiation from the earth is warming the atmosphere. If you’ve walked into a real greenhouse, even on a cold sunny day, you’ll know it feels a lot warmer inside. This is where the name originated.

Solar radiation reaches the Earth through the atmosphere and warms the surface. The stored energy is then sent back to space as infrared radiation. However, as this has a different wavelength to the incoming radiation, less of it can penetrate the barrier of specific atmospheric gases known as greenhouse gases.

The most important greenhouse gas is carbon dioxide (CO2) but others include water vapour (H2O), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and sulphur hexaflouride (SF6).

Since the start of the industrial revolution, there has been a sharp increase in greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere, mainly due to CO2, from the burning of fossil fuels, but also from changes in land use. Many scientists agree that CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere have increased by 30% since the middle of the 19th century.

A sustainably managed resource

Australia's forest management is among the best in the world in terms of conservation reserves and codes of practice for production forests. Only 6% of Australia’s 147 million hectares of native forests is public forest potentially available for timber harvesting. Timber is harvested from about 1% of these public native forests each year.

Knowing the source of wood

Australia has two forestry certification schemes which enable users of wood and wooden products to know the source of the wood.

Responsible Wood

Responsible Wood meets the Australian Forestry Standard (AFS) and certifies extensive areas of native forests and plantations across Australia. It includes a Chain of Custody Standard to track forest and wood products throughout the supply chain. This provides purchasers with assurance that the forest and wood products they are buying are from forests that are managed to the Australian Forestry Standard.

A world-class forestry standard, the AFS is is endorsed by the world’s biggest assessor of sustainable forest management, the Programme for Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC).

For more information, please visit Responsible Wood

The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)

This uses internationally agreed FSC Principles of Responsible Forest Management to enable FSC accredited certification bodies to issue a certificate for any forestry operation that meets their requirements. The system also includes Chain of Custody (COC) certification.

For more information, please visit Home Page | Forest Stewardship Council (


Did you know?

94 million tonnes of carbon was present in wood and wood products in use in 2016, and 50 million tonnes of carbon in wood and wood products in landfill.